College Physics 4.12 – Force of a decelerating rocket sled on the passenger’s body


Repeat the previous problem for the situation in which the rocket sled decelerates at a rate of 201 m/s2. In this problem, the forces are exerted by the seat and restraining belts.

A sled is shown with four rockets. Friction force is represented by an arrow labeled as vector f pointing toward the left on the sled. The weight of the sled is represented by an arrow labeled as vector W, shown pointing downward, and the normal force is represented by an arrow labeled as vector N having the same length as W acting upward on the sled.
Figure 4.32: A rocket sled

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College Physics 4.11 – Force of a rocket sled against its passengers body


The rocket sled shown in Figure 4.32 accelerates at a rate of 49.0 m/s2. Its passenger has a mass of 75.0 kg.
(a) Calculate the horizontal component of the force the seat exerts against his body. Compare this with his weight by using a ratio.
(b) Calculate the direction and magnitude of the total force the seat exerts against his body.

A sled is shown with four rockets. Friction force is represented by an arrow labeled as vector f pointing toward the left on the sled. The weight of the sled is represented by an arrow labeled as vector W, shown pointing downward, and the normal force is represented by an arrow labeled as vector N having the same length as W acting upward on the sled.
Figure 4.32: A rocket sled

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College Physics 3.70 – Construct Your Own Problem


Consider an airplane headed for a runway in a cross wind. Construct a problem in which you calculate the angle the airplane must fly relative to the air mass in order to have a velocity parallel to the runway. Among the things to consider are the direction of the runway, the wind speed and direction (its velocity) and the speed of the plane relative to the air mass. Also calculate the speed of the airplane relative to the ground. Discuss any last minute maneuvers the pilot might have to perform in order for the plane to land with its wheels pointing straight down the runway.


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College Physics 3.69 – Unreasonable velocity of a commercial airplane


A commercial airplane has an air speed of 280 m/s due east and flies with a strong tailwind. It travels 3000 km in a direction 5º south of east in 1.50 h. (a) What was the velocity of the plane relative to the ground? (b) Calculate the magnitude and direction of the tailwind’s velocity. (c) What is unreasonable about both of these velocities? (d) Which premise is unreasonable?


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College Physics 3.68 – Unreasonable velocity


Suppose you wish to shoot supplies straight up to astronauts in an orbit 36,000 km above the surface of the Earth. (a) At what velocity must the supplies be launched? (b) What is unreasonable about this velocity? (c) Is there a problem with the relative velocity between the supplies and the astronauts when the supplies reach their maximum height? (d) Is the premise unreasonable or is the available equation inapplicable? Explain your answer.


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College Physics 3.67 – The angle of a puck’s velocity relative to the player


An ice hockey player is moving at 8.00 m/s when he hits the puck toward the goal. The speed of the puck relative to the player is 29.0 m/s. The line between the center of the goal and the player makes a 90.0º angle relative to his path as shown in Figure 3.63. What angle must the puck’s velocity make relative to the player (in his frame of reference) to hit the center of the goal?

An ice hockey player moving across the rink must shoot backward to give the puck a velocity toward the goal
Figure 3.63 An ice hockey player moving across the rink must shoot backward to give the puck a velocity toward the goal.

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College Physics 3.66 – Velocity of the Gulf Stream given its relative velocity


A ship sailing in the Gulf Stream is heading 25.0º west of north at a speed of 4.00 m/s relative to the water. Its velocity relative to the Earth is 4.80 m/s 5.00º west of north. What is the velocity of the Gulf Stream? (The velocity obtained is typical for the Gulf Stream a few hundred kilometers off the east coast of the United States.)


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College Physics 3.65 – Relative velocity of the water flowing


An athlete crosses a 25-m-wide river by swimming perpendicular to the water current at a speed of 0.5 m/s relative to the water. He reaches the opposite side at a distance 40 m downstream from his starting point. How fast is the water in the river flowing with respect to the ground? What is the speed of the swimmer with respect to a friend at rest on the ground?


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College Physics 3.64 – Rate of expansion as a function of distance


(a) Use the distance and velocity data in Figure 3.62 to find the rate of expansion as a function of distance.
(b) If you extrapolate back in time, how long ago would all of the galaxies have been at approximately the same position? The two parts of this problem give you some idea of how the Hubble constant for universal expansion and the time back to the Big Bang are determined, respectively.


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College Physics 3.63 – Velocities relative to the galaxies


The great astronomer Edwin Hubble discovered that all distant galaxies are receding from our Milky Way Galaxy with velocities proportional to their distances. It appears to an observer on the Earth that we are at the center of an expanding universe. Figure 3.62 illustrates this for five galaxies lying along a straight line, with the Milky Way Galaxy at the center. Using the data from the figure, calculate the velocities: (a) relative to galaxy 2 and (b) relative to galaxy 5. The results mean that observers on all galaxies will see themselves at the center of the expanding universe, and they would likely be aware of relative velocities, concluding that it is not possible to locate the center of expansion with the given information.

Five galaxies on a straight line, showing their distances and velocities relative to the Milky Way (MW) Galaxy. The distances are in millions of light years (Mly), where a light year is the distance light travels in one year. The velocities are nearly proportional to the distances. The sizes of the galaxies are greatly exaggerated; an average galaxy is about 0.1 Mly across.
Figure 3.62 Five galaxies on a straight line, showing their distances and velocities relative to the Milky Way (MW) Galaxy. The distances are in millions of light years (Mly), where a light year is the distance light travels in one year. The velocities are nearly proportional to the distances. The sizes of the galaxies are greatly exaggerated; an average galaxy is about 0.1 Mly across.

Solution:

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