Frictional Force in a Knee Joint| Further Applications of Newton’s Laws: Friction, Drag, and Elasticity| College Physics| Problem 5.3

PROBLEM:

(a) What is the maximum frictional force in the knee joint of a person who supports 66.0 kg of her mass on that knee?

(b) During strenuous exercise, it is possible to exert forces to the joints that are easily ten times greater than the weight being supported. What is the maximum force of friction under such conditions? The frictional forces in joints are relatively small in all circumstances except when the joints deteriorate, such as from injury or arthritis. Increased frictional forces can cause further damage and pain.

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Two children pushing on a third child in a wagon| Newton’s Second Law of Motion: Concept of a System| Dynamics| College Physics| Problem 4.9

PROBLEM:

Suppose two children push horizontally, but in exactly opposite directions, on a third child in a wagon. The first child exerts a force of 75.0 N, the second a force of 90.0 N, friction is 12.0 N, and the mass of the third child plus wagon is 23.0 kg.

(a) What is the system of interest if the acceleration of the child in the wagon is to be calculated?

(b) Draw a free-body diagram, including all forces acting on the system.

(c) Calculate the acceleration.

(d) What would the acceleration be if friction were 15.0 N?

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Measuring the mass of an Austronaut| Newton’s Second Law of Motion: Concept of a System| Dynamics| College Physics| Problem 4.4

PROBLEM:

Since astronauts in orbit are apparently weightless, a clever method of measuring their masses is needed to monitor their mass gains or losses to adjust diets. One way to do this is to exert a known force on an astronaut and measure the acceleration produced. Suppose a net external force of 50.0 N is exerted and the astronaut’s acceleration is measured to be 0.893 m/s²
(a) Calculate her mass.
(b) By exerting a force on the astronaut, the vehicle in which they orbit experiences an equal and opposite force. Discuss how this would affect the measurement of the astronaut’s acceleration. Propose a method in which the recoil of the vehicle is avoided.

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